Drugs in the Human Body
Introduction: Medicinal herbs have lived through history with mankind up to now, and the knowledge of herbal medicine thus preserved and accumulated is representative of human culture and science, and has become an important part of our civilization. In a certain way, the practice of medicine symbolizes the level of human culture and science development. Today, mankind has developed into various nations, each along with its own application of medicines, and different levels of applications in medicine signifiy different levels of civilization.
Mankind have always wanted to live a quality, healthy life free from disease, and for this they have to choose from numerous medicines that are appropriate to serve their purpose. Life is wonderful, yet only for the finely lived ones. Modern genetic studies had concluded that a person can live up to 150-170 years old. Si’miao Sun, a well-known Chinese doctor dated back in the Tang Dynasty, had claimed the same, that “a human can live up to 200 years if he is active like the running water that is never stale and like a door-hinge that never gets worm-eaten.”
This article purposely studies medicines to find the best ones that can support a human being to live to the maximum of his natural life with quality.
Key words: system; flow; circulation; joined by closed vessels.
Modern human anatomy separates human body into several systems to explore and study. These systems include:
1)The movement system comprises the bones, the bony unions, and the skeletal muscles.
2)The digestion system comprises the digestive vessels and digestive glands.
3)The breathing system comprises the nose, the pharynx, the throat, the trachea, the main bronchus, and the lungs.
4)The urinary system comprises the kidney, the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra.
5) The reproductive system comprises the male genitalia and the female genitalia.
6) The Circulatory system comprises the commissural closed vessels that include:
The Cardiovascular system composed of the heart, the arteries, the capillaries and veins with blood;
The lymphatic system composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs and lymphoid tissues with lymph flow within;
7)The endocrine system comprises the thyroid, the parathyroid, the pituitary, the adrenal gland, the pineal gland, and the thymus;
8)The perception system comprises the eyes, the ears, the mouth, the nose, the tongue, skin and other organs and limbs;
9)The nervous system comprises the nervous tissues including neurons and glia. A nerve cell, also called a neuron, is the basic unit of the nervous system in structure and function to sense stimulation and conduction of impulse; a glia is the auxiliary component to hold supportive and protective effects on the neurons.
1. Anatomy specifies that inside the human body exist several closed circulatory systems, and a nervus is just a conductor of information. No system of meridian and collateral vessels was mentioned in Anatomy.
2. “When absorbed into the stomach, grain will transform to Qi and then spread to the viscera and other organs by the lung. The clean and light part of Qi act as Ying inside the meridian while the muddy and strong part act as Wei outside the meridian. In their endless circulations, Ying and Wei will encounter once in every fifty times of circulation to generate intersections of Yin and Yang, like a loop with no end..... Tai Yin leads inside the meridian, and Tai Yang leads outside the meridian, each running twenty-five times a day......" Chapter 18, the Encounterance of Ying and Wei, Nei Jing.
Nei Jing clearly pointed out that inside the human body there is a closed system circulating fifty times a day within which Yin and Yang intersect like a loop with no end. This vast, invisible, and mysterious meridian-collateral system were discovered by our Chinese ancestors thousands of years ago.
3. “Thus the meridians, being able to determine life or death, to treat all kinds of diseases, to adjust deficiencies and excesses, could not be blocked.” Ling Shu, Meridian, Neijing.
Hence it is clear that the meridian-collateral system is the key to human body’s health adjustments and is related to human’s life and death.
4. “Doctors unaware of the meridian-collateral system are like people walking in the dark without lights.” Said Liting, Qing Dynasty, Introduction to Medicine.
Key words: organic compounds; protein; RNA; sugar; fat; the overall level; human body and environment; metabolism; 100 trillion; integration effect; dynamic balance; regulation; steady status; humoral factors; membrane; permeability; net; ostiole; vessel; diameter; sodium potassium pump; transmembrane transport; concentration difference; adverse concentration gradient;
Key phrases: An overall level study is vital; To exist and exercise as an integrated union; The structure of an automatic control system must emerge as a closed loop; The exchange of substances must be done through the membrane; Ostioles are passages for the exchange of material inside and outside the cell nucleus; A passage for sodium has an oval cross-section of diameter 0.3×0.5nm; A potassium passage is circular with a diameter of 0.3×0.3nm; The diameter of the particles passing through the passage must be smaller than the passage’s diameter.
Key numbers: 0.9nm, 0.3×0.3nm
1.1 The research object, task and method of Physiology
Physiology is the science studying the law of life activities, and is a branch of biology . Regular human physiology is the study of the regular functional activities of the human body. The research is usually divided into cellular or molecular level, organs or system level and the overall level.
All living beings in this planet are of the same origin, therefore all organisms are made of protein, RNA, carbohydrate, lipid and other materials formed by macromolecular organic compounds such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen atoms, etc..
The purpose of studying the molecular, cellular organs, the system, and the special physical and chemical changes of the ultrastructure and functions within the cells and biological molecules, is to deeply understand the regulation of life activities of the human body. The crucial part in the practical application of physiology is an overall research on the relationship of unity and antinomy between human and environment and the relationship between the activities of different systems.
1.2 Regulation of human body functions and activities
From the dialectical materialist point of view, life is a special form of movement of substances. Life activities are characteristic of metabolism, induction, self reproduction, growth and development, genetic variation, aging and death, etc.. More than a hundred years ago, Engels made a brilliant exposition in the Dialectics of nature: "life is the way of existence of protein bodies, its basic factor is the constant metabolism with its surrounding external nature". In recent years, research on molecular biology has substantially proved it a scientific judgment. Protein bodies are a kind of life material systems of colloid based majorly on protein and RNA. Living beings, formed by life materials, are called organisms or the body.
The structure of a human body is extremely intricate. It consists of about 100 trillion cells of different structures and functions, these cells form varied organizations, organs and systems with each of their own unique functions......And its varied components are not unrelated, independently active, but with a strict organizational structure, and it functions as a unified entirety with close coordination of collaborative activities both in time and space. This effect of combining different functions together and adjusting them into an stereotyped functional activity of adaptive significance, is called INTEGRATION.
The essential characteristic of organic life activity is its constant self-renewal -- Metabolism is the inextricable link of an organic body and its living environment. Functions of an organism will alter to adapt to environmental changes when that happens, thus the organism can maintain a dynamic balance with the environment, or it will not survive......So it is obvious that, an organism and its environment shall maintain a relationship of unity of opposites, and it is about adaptability and integrity.......This physiological process is called adjustment, through which an organism can remain in a steady state. And this steady state is the guarantee for its normal life activities.
1. “Must first remove the stagnation from the blood, then regulate the deficiencies of Qi and blood whatever the disease is. The first treatment principle is to achieve the balance state of Qi and blood.” quoted from Noinclude: The Theory of Three Positions and their Nine Representatives, Neijing. Hence, metabolism, overall adjustment, dynamic balanced state have long been described in Neijing.
2. Neijing, of which the kernel is the unity of human and nature, and Waijing, of which the kernel is the harmony between human and Nature, are the quintessences of ancient Chinese medicine’s studies on the relations between human beings and the natural environments. They together formed a theory that describes the human body and Nature as a entirety of unity and opposites, and explained that a human body must adapt to the surrounding natural environment and live with it as a unity so as to maintain a dynamic balanced state inside itself.
3. Ancient Chinese had identified a human body as a micro universe.
2. Basic ways of regulation
2.1 Neural regulation
Reflex is the basic way of neural regulation, the structural basics of its activity is the reflex arc that comprises five parts, namely a receptor, an afferent nerve, a nerve center, an efferent nerve, and an effector. The receptor features to transmit the internal and external environmental stimulations into neural information and pass them to the nerve center via the afferent nerve. (The nerve center is a nerve cell group related to certain kinds of reflex activities and located in the brain and the spinal cord.) In other words, a central nervous system attains information of the internal and external environmental changes via an afferent nerve connected especially with a special organization to sense internal stimulations. Hence it is clear that if any section of a reflex arc gets blocked or damaged it will cause confusion or even the disappearance of reflex activities.
2.2 Humoral regulation
Humoral regulation mainly refers to the hormones that are secreted by endocrine cells and are transported to the whole body to adjust metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction, etc... This kind of chemical substances are collectively known as humoral factors.
“Food of five different tastes would enter human body through the mouth, then be stored in the intestines and the stomach. Then the stomach would produce Qi from the food and send it to the five organs, then in these organs Qi would be turned into body fluid essence. When these essence suffuses the organs, the person would feel energetic generally.” Chapter 9, On Visceral Manifestation, Neijing.
Hence Neijing had identified the body fluid as the fundamental substance for generating human life and spirits.
2.3 Self Regulation
Self regulation is the adaptive reaction of the body when tissues and cells in the internal and external environment change. It is independent of neural or humoral regulation .
3. The principle of automatic control of the regulation of body functions
In the 40’s of this century, in the field of engineering and technology, a marginal science -Cybernetics, a powerful theoretic tool to study an entirety with comprehensive methods, was developed...According to auto-cybernetics, all kinds functional adjustments of the human body can be considered as an automatic control system. The composition in structure of such system must be a closed loop...For keeping a steady body temperature, the changes of the internal temperature play the most important role.
4. The fundamental functions of cell.
Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of an organism...They vary in types and functions but they share certain structure and functions.
4.1 Basic structure of the cell
On the surface of a cell covers a layer of lipid with a thickness around 7.5-10nm, it is called the cytomembrane. Inside the membrane it is filled with cytoplasm.
4.1.1 The Cytomembrane
The cytomembrane is a kind of lipid membrane with a unique structure and functions, its permeability has huge specificity and alters according to various factors. The cytomembrane is the part through which material exchanges inside and outside a cell happens, its functional status determines the concentration difference of the materials inside and outside the cell. It exists not only on the surface of cells but also on the surface of cell nucleus and the surface of other cell organelles, such as the nuclear membrane, the mitochondrial membrane. They are dual-layer lipoid, and are collectively called the elementary membrane.
An organelle is an important part of a cell for it embodies the cell’s functions. Its type varies with cells. Lysosome, mitochondria, Golgi complex, secretory granules and endoplasmic reticulum, are the common organelles possessed by all cells. An endoplasmic reticulum is mainly relevant to the composition of protein. Endoplasmic reticulum in the muscle, categorized as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and also known as sarcoplasmic reticulum, is the storage for calcium ions, it will stimulate a muscular contraction to release them.
4.1.3 Cell nucleus
The cell nucleus is the structural foundation for the cells’ reproduction. Its surface is covered by a nuclear membrane layer with numerous micro holes on it as hatches for material exchange inside and outside the cell nucleus. Inside the cell nucleus are chromosome mostly, it is composed of the DNA and histones. DNA plays the rolls as the genetic factor or gene carrier.
2.2 The transportation function of cytomembrane
Cytomembrane exists between the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid, it has significant impact on the composition and the concentration of the substances inside and outside the cell. The fluid inside the cytomembrane is called the intracellular fluid, while the fluid bathing the outside of the cells is called the extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid includes the interstitial fluid and the blood, and is the communication bridge for the cell and its outside world.
2.2.1 Passive transportation
The phenomenon of movements of ions of the same kind along the concentration gradient in solutions of the same kind of solutes is called diffusion.
The speed of solution-diffusion depends not only on the concentration difference but also the influence of its fat-soluble degree, that is to say, the higher the fat-soluble diffusion rate is the faster the solution-diffusion.
- Facilitated diffusion
Being insoluble in lipid, some kinds of substance have to rely on intermediates as carrier belts to pass through the cytomembrane. This form of diffusion is called facilitated diffusion.
- Vessel diffusion
To pass through the cytomembrane some ions must rely on certain vessels on the cytomembrane, e.g., the sodium ions, potassium ions and certain negative ions, etc. By far, these vessels, known to be formed of protein embedded to the lipid membrane, have certain bores. A sodium vessel has a oval bore with a 0.3nm by 0.5nm diameter, a potassium vessel has a round bore with a 0.3nm by 0.3nm diameter. Particles to pass through the vessels must have a diameter smaller than the diameter of the bore of the vessels. The diameter of a sodium ion is 0.19nm, far smaller than that of a sodium vessel. However, the smaller an ion is the stronger is its tendency to become hydrated. When a sodium ion becomes a hydrone particle after hydration, its diameter will become about 0.68nm, far larger than that of a sodium vessel’s. Thus it needs to remove the hydrone from the combination within itself so as to decrease its size to be able to pass through a vessel. The hydration particle of sodium ion is the result due to a positive electric field effect. So there needs a negative electric field effect to help a sodium ion hydration particle remove the combined hydrone from itself. The negative electric charges on the inwall of the sodium vessel can overcome the sodium ion’s hydration tendency so as to just let the dehydrated ions pass through. That means, sodium ions can only pass through sodium vessels with negative electric charges.
A potassium ion has a diameter of 0.27nm, which is larger than that of a sodium ion’s. But its hydration power is less than that of a sodium ion’s; the diameter of its hydration particle is 0.44nm only. And because of its low hydration tendency it can easily pass through a potassium vessel that carries less or even no negative electric charges.
2.2.2 Active transportation
Unlike passive transportation, active transportation is a trans-membrane transportation against concentration gradient. Reason why it is called active transportation is because it consumes energy in the process. It must rely on a certain kind of macromolecule substance. This substance can uniquely combine with the substance to be transported, called the matrix to form a carrier-matrix compound so as to pass through the membrane.
- Na-K Pump transportation
Na-K pump is the carrier to accomplish this sort of transportation, it exists in almost all cells, and is a kind of membrane embedded protein. Na-K pump transportation has a major difference from facilitated diffusion because it is against the concentration gradient and energy is needed. The carrier that completes the sodium and potassium ions’ active transport, called the Na-K pump, is a kind of membrane embedded protein existing in almost all cells. Besides Na-K pump, there’s another kind of carrier that is called Na pump, which transports only Na ions and exists widely in all cytomembrane…
All cells, especially those with membranes with negative electric charges, carry certain substance that cannot cross the cytomembranes…Because of the negative electric charges carried on the cells, massive positive ions, especially Na ions would carry with them large quantity of hydrone into the cells hence causing cellular swelling which the Na pump could help prevent. In addition, the Na pump is a necessity to maintain the cell’s regular functions and states.
- Cooperative transportation
It is another type of active transport with the feature of transporting other substances along with Na ions using the same carriers.
2.2.3 Endocytosis and exocytosis
As endocytosis happen, substances would merge with the lysosomes within, and be digested by the hydrolases inside the lysosomes, or, the lysosomes would enter the vacuoles to digest the alien objects.
Exocytosis is the opposite process of endocytosis. Macromolecule objects that were born inside the cell would utilize exocytosis to export themselves from the cell.
2.3 Membrane potential and action potentials
Existing on both sides of the cytomembrane, the electric potential difference is called the membrane potential and exists in almost all cells and plays an important role for the cells’ functions.
2.3.2 Resting potential and action potential
1. Congested between the intestines and stomach and beneath the interpleuro-diaphramatic space, cold steam would cause blood to stagnate, creating contractures in minor arteries and veins and leading to pain. When kneaded on, blood and Qi would become mobile and spread away, and pain would stop... Cold steam between the interpleuro-diaphramatic space of the small intestine, inside the meridians and blood, would block the blood from the main meridian, making the blood and Qi stagnate and even accumulate with time. Quote Section 39, Examples of Pain, Neijing.
Membrane, or fascia, is like a curtain, existing inside the muscles and viscera when thin tendons contacted in patches, is a barrier to blood and Qi. Where a fascia lies, the meridians separate, and the blood and Qi stagnate , then we call it the pleurodiaphragmatic interspace, or just the membrane. Explained by Leijing, a Chinese medical classic Literature.
2. 100 trillion organic cells form a human body, inside which runs the body fluids through all vessels in and out to produce new fluids, and hence accomplish the metabolism. Vessels shall have bores; Metabolin particles should have diameters smaller than the sizes of the bores. The limit for particles to pass through vessels is called CONSTRAINED PARTICLE DIAMETER.
The phenomenon of constrained particle diameter and the barrier for blood and Qi explain the same thing, that is: particles’ diameter and the membrane’s bore must match.
Surely, body fluid vessels have on themselves constrained particle diameters less than 0.3nm, and so the biological membraneson body organs have holes of similar size.
Key words: inorganic compound; nano CTM; particle diameter of the medicine; blood-brain barrier; biological membrane;
Key phrases: medicine with particle diameter’s of 10-100nm; The average particle diameter of licorice microencapsulated particulate is 19nm, particles of this size can cross the blood-brain barrier to realize brain targeting; At present, it is too early for the commercialization of nano CTM production; minimum crush size is 10nm; The sizes of common viruses are of dozens of nano meters; the size of an adenovirus monomer is 62~64nm.
Key numbers: 10nm, 19nm, 62~64nm.
1. Medicine composition
In the chemical industry, it is clear that western medicines are mainly inorganic substances because they are made from certain selected inorganic substance or several kinds of inorganic compounds through a process of chemical reactions under controlled conditions, such as temperature, pressure and moisture.
Note: A number of the inorganic chemical molecules form a molecule group of larger particles through combination of chemical bonds of atoms or molecules.
2. The particle diameter of medicines
1) Nano CTM
Nano CTM is the general term referring to the effective components or parts, original grade, or the compound products of CTM processed through the application of nano-technology.
2) Preparation methods of nano CTM
“Micro-emulsification means mixing oil, water, emulsifier and co-emulsifier agent according to certain proportions under certain temperature through appropriate methods. Medicine would spread as emulsion droplets within a range of 10~100nm in another kind of fluid to form a colloidal disperse system.” Quote Nano Chinese Medicine and the Modernization of Chinese Medicine.
There are mainly two kinds of preparation methods of nano medicine: the nano-drug carrier system and the nanocrystallization.
A nano meter is one in a billion meter, equals to the length of ten straightly lined hydrogen atoms.
3) The features of nano CTM
After nanocrystallization the original drugs would present new efficacy or enhanced existing effects. When CTM drugs are made into particles of 0.1~100nm, their physical, chemical, biological properties may deeply alter, usually would strengthen activity or generate brand new efficacy, their compound products may possess new features such as of being able to cross the blood-brain barrier or the biological membrane.
A single herb prescription could be minerals, plant drugs, animals or fungi, among which particles of licorice micro-capsule have an average diameter of 19nm. Such nano particles can cross the blood-brain barrier to achieve brain targeting.
“In the preparation of nano particles, their carriers would mostly be synthetic polymers with biodegradability that degrade slowly in the body and then accumulate if drugs are taken continually. Besides, degradation products have some certain toxicity that were considered at none or low level could shift to explicit or even stronger level when their particle diameters get reduced to a certain level. For example, changing their electric charges’ property on the surface or the physical and chemical environments around nano materials, they could display different toxicities or arouse different metabolisms within the organisms or even generate reactions with certain parts of the organs or histocytes, thus to cause unusual uncertainties for the effective components of the nano-processed CTM and its pharmacodynamics, leaving potential hidden dangers for quality control of the drugs. Moreover, when crushed to nano scale, CTM’s efficacy may change. Damaging the effective components while obtaining nano particles is somehow unacceptable, which would require a limitation on the nano Chinese medicines’ application. Microscopic study on Chinese traditional medicines are not carried further enough to learn their effective and non-effective components, nano-processing for commercialization at this stage is too early for Chinese traditional medicine.“ quoted from Advancements on Pharmacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
3. The application prospect of nano CTM.
“Viral diseases: The common size of virus is of dozens of nanometer, equals to the size of nano CTM’s. Nano CTM carries certain targeting property to kill viruses inside the cells, hence it can enter the cells with or without surface modification.” quoted from Nano traditional Chinese medicine and the modernization of traditional Chinese Medicine.
“Single particle size of adenovirus is 62-64nm. And the particle sizes of two dimer, trimer, tetramer particles’ respectively are: 73nm, 76nm, 84nm, 94nm, the same with the calculated date of experience model of adenovirus multimer.” quoted from Some Problems in the Research of Nano Drug Quality.
4. Term of validity
In chemistry, all chemical reactions are reversible. A chemical reaction that generates compounds in set directions at the settings of temperature, pressure and water conditions are called FORWARD reaction. Along BACKWARD reactions are happening in the mean time. Once the compounds generated from the chemical reactions drop off the set conditions, they will initiate backward reaction which, known as reduction process as well, is the reversible process of chemical compounds at set temperature, pressure, water and time conditions to produce inorganic chemical products. And inorganic products are tagged with a term of validity, namely the validation period when the products finish their backward reactions.
1. There are forward and reverse processes in chemical reactions, namely the producing process and restoring process of a product. Under set conditions through the whole process the forward process would be in the dominant place and produce dominant products while the reverse process subordinates and produce recessive products.
2. The instance a product of the forward process drop off from set reaction conditions, the reduction process will start to shift from recessive to dominant. When the development of dominance reaches its limit then the backward reaction will play the dominant role through the process and start to lead the restore process to its ending.
So we can say that the expiry date of a product is the date when its reverse process becomes dominant.
1. Nano pulverization technology states that the size of a solid particle should be≥60nm.
2. Research has shown that the size of a single virus particle is about 60nm.
When a single virus is killed by the western medicine, a mixture of the drug and its dead body is generated, and these mixtures shall agglomerate when they meet each other.
In the same way, the result of killing other single or agglomerated germ is the same. This fact previews that agglomerations of particle size bigger than 60nm will be generated within the body when medicine kills viruses and germs.
3. Based on above, when inorganic chemical medicine entry the organic body of harmonization, it must create obstruction in the closed cycle fluid vessels, then cause harmonization to lose and metabolism to fall.
In summary, when western medicine entry a human body it will cause: obstruction in vessels, the imbalance of overall liquid flow, metabolism plunges; hence result in the decline of body immunization.
Chinese Traditional Medicine (CTM)
Key words: Organic material; tisane; the four steams; the five flavors; cold/coo/warm/hot;
Key phrases: Warm it when it’s cold. Cool it when it’s hot. Whatever the disease is, balance the state of Qi and blood, balance positive & negative energy and correct any deviation.
1. The components of CTM
CTM is made from natural plants, animals and minerals, among which plants and animals are organic materials:
- Plant based: mainly from natural organic herbaceous plant. In these plants’ growing and developing seasons, the effective components in their roots, stems, flowers, leaves and fruitages varies in contents and medical properties.
- Animal based: from animals’ organic bodies or shells.
- Mineral based: from rare minerals.
- Fungus based: from various kinds of fungi that parasite on the tree roots.
2. The formulation of CTM
The formulation of CTM, namely the shape or state of the medicine produced, mainly consists of medicinal broth, boiled agent, decoction, potus, pulvis, powder, water pasted, suppository, clysma, sit agent, vinum, fumigant, electuary, nose agent, embrocation. Among the above formulations, medicinal broth, boiled agent, decoction, potus, pulvis and powder are for oral administration and, medical broth, boiled agent, decoction and potus are herbal dosage forms while pulvis and powder are particle reagent types.
3. The property of CTM
The property of CTM is of nature and tastes, they are called the FOUR STEAMS: cool, cold, warm, hot, and the FIVE TASTES: spicy, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, puckery, and tasteless. Quote from The Chinese Traditional Medicine.
This the the property and physical nature of CTM.
“Warm it when it’s cold, cool it when it’s hot.” Quote Noinclude: The Most Profound and Important Macro Theory, Neijing. This is the highest principle in the clinical application of CTM.
“Must first remove the stagnation from the blood. Then regulate the deficiencies of Qi and blood. , No matter what the disease is, the first treatment principle is to achieve the balance level of Qi and blood.” Quote Noinclude: The Theory of Three Positions and their Nine Representatives, Neijing.
CTM applies the theory of Meridian tropism. It means medicating straightly to the nidus of a disease. This method utilizes the positive or negative energy released by the CTM to turn the body temperature in reverse to return to its normal state. And this process is physical.
1. CTM and medicinal herbs are based on natural animals, plants and rare minerals.
2. The major means of taking CTM is medicinal broth, followed by potus. Medicinal broth can exist in organic ion and energy in the human body.
3. Adjusting the body temperature in reverse by the organic substance released by medicinal broth to adsorb energy is a physical adjustment.
4. The inverse shifting of body temperature that results from the positive or negative energy released by CTM medicinal broth in the human body is a physical phenomenon.
Summary: CTM utilizes positive/negative energy to shift the body temperature in reverse and this is an overall physical adjustment to the human body.
The Integration of CTM and Western Medicine
Key words: particle size limit, large molecule; micro disturbance; chaos;
Key numbers: 0.3×0.3nm; 2nm; 19nm.
The life process of a living being, in terms of the metabolism of the body, is the process of physics and chemistry. Metabolism is the exchange of the body’s substances with the substances of Nature. This is called the Flow Effect or the Facilitation. Undoubtedly, metabolism substance must be able to transport through the biological membrane and the vessel bore of the human body.
Let us clarified the following again:
1. The diameter of Na pump on the cytomembrane is 0.3×0.3nm.
2. The diameter of the star shape cross-section of the meridian vessels is 20A, namely 2nm.
3. The membrane hole of blood-brain barrier has diameter 19nm.
4. The blood-brain-spinal fluid barrier can let water and gas in freely to the spinal fluid, but not those large molecules such as protein.
In this article we have clarified that:
1. Inside the human body there are membranes and vessels, and vessels limit the size ofparticles passing through them.
“Meridians can determine death and life, treat diseases, adjust deficiencies and excesses. They must be smooth and fluent.” quoted from Meridian, Lingshu,
Neijing clearly says that smooth vessels result in prosperous metabolism and energetic life.
2. The nano medicine’s minimum particle diameter exceeds the cytomembrane hole’s diameter, hence it will remain and accumulate outside the membrane, causing damage to the Qi-blood barrier of the membrane and impairing the transportation of blood.
3. ‘The initial micro disturbance in space must eventually cause its overall chaos.’ This is the butterfly effect clearly discussed in the contemporary famous book of The Essence of Chaos.
There were no inorganic substances in Nature and the human body originally. When they entry the Nature and the human body, they must cause chaos.
In other words, the micro disturbance of inorganic substance in the human body disrupt its intact, balanced and orderly ecological state.
4. When inorganic substance enter the human body it will generate congestion of allothigene, with this consequence:
The CTM medicinal broth applies the Four Streams to adjust the body temperature, and this adjustment is physical. That’s the reason why the Japanese Dr. Ishihara declared, “That I consider only CTM is scientific.” page 150, Temperature.
Organic Chinese tranditional medicine, medicinal broth and the Four Streams, Yin-Yang and positive/negative energy and cold/hot balancing in reverse/adjustment of deviation, overall balance, all these confirms that CTM is a wise choice of medical treatment.
Achieving the harmony state of correspondence with Nature, a human being can live a life up to hundreds of years. Living a life in accordance with Nature, a person will surely live a long life.